Regulation of plasminogen activation on cell surfaces and fibrin
Author(s): ,
T. Urano
Department of Medical Physiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
Correspondence: Tetsumei Urano, Department of Medical Physiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1‐20‐1, Handa‐yama, Higashi‐ku, Hamamatsu, 431‐3192, Japan|Tel.: +81 53 435 2248|E‐mail:
F. J. Castellino
W.M. Keck Center for Transgene Research, University of Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA
Y. Suzuki
Department of Medical Physiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
ISTH Academy. Urano T. Aug 2, 2018; 227417
Prof. Tetsumei Urano
Prof. Tetsumei Urano

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The fibrinolytic system dissolves fibrin and maintains vascular patency. Recent advances in imaging analyses allowed visualization of the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanism of fibrinolysis, as well as its regulation by other plasma hemostasis cofactors. Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) retain tissue‐type plasminogen activator (tPA) after secretion and maintain high plasminogen (plg) activation potential on their surfaces. As in plasma, the serpin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI‐1), regulates fibrinolytic potential via inhibition of the VEC surface‐bound plg activator, tPA. Once fibrin is formed, plg activation by tPA is initiated and effectively amplified on the surface of fibrin, and fibrin is rapidly degraded. The specific binding of plg and tPA to lytic edges of partly degraded fibrin via newly generated C‐terminal lysine residues, which amplifies fibrin digestion, is a central aspect of this pathophysiological mechanism. Thrombomodulin (TM) plays a role in the attenuation of plg binding on fibrin and the associated fibrinolysis, which is reversed by a carboxypeptidase B inhibitor. This suggests that the plasma procarboxypeptidase B, thrombin‐activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which is activated by thrombin bound to TM on VECs, is a critical aspect of the regulation of plg activation on VECs and subsequent fibrinolysis. Platelets also contain PAI‐1, TAFI, TM, and the fibrin cross‐linking enzyme, factor (F) XIIIa, and either secrete or expose these agents upon activation in order to regulate fibrinolysis. In this review, the native machinery of plg activation and fibrinolysis, as well as their spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms, as revealed by imaging analyses, are discussed.

fibrinolysis, plasminogen, plasminogen inactivators, thrombin‐activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, tissue‐type plasminogen activator
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